Joshua Klayman

(May 2013)

 

                                                            HumanlyLogo


The University of Chicago                                           Humanly Possible®, Inc.

Booth School of Business                                            324 North Marion Street

5807 South Woodlawn Avenue                                   Oak Park, IL 60302

Chicago, IL  60637, U.S.A.                                         +1 (708) 848-0514

+1 (773) 702-7273;  JoshK@UChicago.edu               Josh@HumanlyPossible.com


 

EDUCATION

Ph.D.   major field--Developmental Psychology

            specialization--Cognitive processes

University of Minnesota, 1982

Dissertation: Assessment of Decision Making Strategies in Adults and Children (Advisor: T. Trabasso)

S.B.     major--Psychology and Social Inquiry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974

Thesis: On the Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Programs of Educational Innovation

 

GRANTS AND AWARDS

Templeton Foundation

Symposium:  “Capitalism Without Poverty,” Chicago, October 2009.

Australian Defence Services Training Organization

"Human decision making in complex systems" 1996-1999 (With A. Wearing, C. Ball, & M. Omodei)

National Science Foundation, Decision, Risk and Management Sciences Program:

"Confidence and accuracy: The roles of random error, bias, and learning" 1994-1996

"Knowledge and Inference in Probabilistic Environments II: Learning and experience in real-world contexts," 1987-1990

"Knowledge and Inference in Probabilistic Environments," 1986-1987

"Processes of Learning in Probabilistic Environments," 1983-1985

Fulbright Senior Scholar Award, Council for International Exchange of Scholars and

Australian-American Education Foundation, 1995

University Scholar Award, University of Melbourne, 1995

University of Minnesota Graduate School Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, 1978-1979.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Traineeship, 1974-1978.


RESEARCH INTERESTS

Processes of judgment, decision making, and reasoning

Judgments of confidence

Formation, testing, and revision of beliefs

Learning in judgment and decision making

Application of experimental research to problems in organizational change, managerial decision making, planning, and problem solving

 

RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Humanly Possible®, Inc.: Organizational consulting, management education, and executive coaching.

Founding partner (with Jackie Gnepp).

University of Chicago Booth School of Business / Graduate School of Business

Professor of Behavioral Science (1989-2007, emeritus 2007- ); Associate Professor (1985-1989); Assistant Professor (1980-1985)

Director, Decision Research Laboratory (1987-2004)

University of Melbourne

Melbourne Business School: Professorial Fellow - Managerial and Organisational Behaviour (2008-2013), Visiting Prof. of Organisational Behaviour (2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012-13)

Department of Psychology and the Graduate School of Management:  Fulbright Scholar and University Scholar (1995), Visiting Research Fellow (1990-1991)

Fuqua School of Business, Duke University

Visiting Professor of Management (2010-2011)

INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France)

Visiting Professor of Technology Management (1999-2000)

Hampshire College, Cognitive Studies Program and School of Language and Communication

Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology (1979-1980)

University of Minnesota

University Dissertation Fellow, 1978-1979

Center for Research in Human Learning:  Predoctoral Trainee, 1974-1978

Instructor in Developmental Psychology, 1977-1978

Research assistant to Prof. Thomas Trabasso, 1974

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Research Assistant, Psycholinguistics Laboratory (J. Fodor & M. Garrett), 1971-1974

 

TEACHING INTERESTS

Psychological aspects of work and management in organizations

Processes of learning and change in individuals and organizations

Decision making and processes of judgment


TEACHING EXPERIENCE—DEGREE PROGRAMS

Decision Making (masters): University of Chicago; Melbourne Business School (with J. Gnepp), Duke University (with J. Gnepp). (Undergraduate): Hampshire College

Organizational Change (masters, executive MBA), University of Chicago; Melbourne Business School (with J. Gnepp)

Managing the psychology of change and inertia (masters) INSEAD

Managerial psychology (masters, executive MBA), University of Chicago (Chicago, Barcelona and Singapore) (with J. Gnepp)

Managing in organizations (masters), University of Chicago

Behavioral science (executive MBA), University of Chicago

Laboratory in management process consulting (masters), University of Chicago (with R. Hogarth)

Cognitive processes of judgment (masters/Ph.D.), University of Chicago

Processes of expertise (masters/Ph.D.), University of Chicago

Learning and development in decision making and judgment (masters/Ph.D.), University of Chicago

What and why do people believe? (Ph.D.), University of Chicago

(Mis)perceptions of others and oneself (Ph.D.), University of Chicago

Justification and explanation in decision and judgment (Ph.D.), INSEAD

Knowledge and reasoning in social interaction (undergraduate), Hampshire College

Cognitive development (graduate/undergraduate), Hampshire College

Introduction to child psychology (undergraduate), University of Minnesota

 

TEACHING EXPERIENCE—NON-DEGREE PROGRAMS

Leading and implementing change and innovation, Chicago Booth Exec. Ed. (with J. Gnepp)

Leading innovation and change, Exec. Ed., Melbourne Business School (with J. Gnepp)

Implementing innovation and Change, Chicago Booth Exec. Ed. (with R. Hogarth and J. Gnepp)

Organizational change, Argonne-Fermi-Jefferson National Laboratories Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program

Implementing innovation, Argonne-Fermi-Jefferson National Laboratories Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program.

Dynamic leadership: Creating the future, European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co.

Organizational leadership, CPA Australia—CFO Advance

Leading and sustaining organization change.  U.S. Customs and Border Protection Leadership Institute (with J. Gnepp)

Achieving cooperation and alignment, Johnson & Johnson – Ethicon Endosurgery (with J. Gnepp)

Leading change, Johnson & Johnson – Ethicon Endosurgery (with J. Gnepp)

Leading change: Think Big, Bridgestone-Firestone

Creative thinking, Underwriters Laboratory

Challenges to effective judgment and decision making, Chicago-GSB/Spencer Stuart Directors’ College

Beliefs, intuition, and evidence, BAI Graduate School of Bank Auditing

Identifying and developing expertise, The Interpublic Group of Companies


PUBLICATIONS AND PAPERS

Klayman, J. (2011). Perspectives on judgment and decision making as a skill.  In M. K. Dhami, A. Schlottmann, & M. R. Waldmann (Eds.), Judgment and Decision Making as a Skill: Learning, Development and Evolution.  Cambridge, U.K.:  Cambridge University Press, pp. 301-302.

Burson, K. A. & Klayman, J. (2010). Things Are Tough All Over: Judgments of Skill and Performance Are Not as Egocentric as They Look. Working Paper, Ross School of Business, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Quinn, M. T., Gnepp, J., Alexander, G. C., Hollingsworth, D., O'Connor, K. G., Lang, W., Klayman, J., & Meltzer, D. (2010). Design and evaluation of work site promotions of organ donation: Real-world challenges and strategies to address them. In J. T. Siegel and E. M. Alvaro (Eds.), Understanding Organ Donation: Applied Behavioral Science Perspectives. Malden, MA: Blackwell-Wiley, pp. 164-176.

Tsai, C. I., Klayman, J., & Hastie, R. (2008).  Effects of Amount of Information on Judgment Accuracy and Confidence.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107, 97-105.

Klayman, J. & Kleinmuntz, D. N. (2007).  Benjamin Kleinmuntz (1930-2006) [obituary]. American Psychologist, 62, 698.

Burson, K. A., Larrick, R. P., & Klayman, J. (2006).  Skilled or unskilled, but still unaware of it:  How perceptions of difficulty drive miscalibration in relative comparisons.   Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (1), 60-77.

Burson, K. A. & Klayman, J. (2006). Looking for Lake Wobegon: Why sometimes we are all below average. Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 569.

Klayman, J., Soll, J. B., Juslin, P. & Winman, A.  (2006).  Subjective Confidence and the Sampling of Knowledge.  In Fiedler, K. & Juslin, P. (Eds.), Information Sampling and Adaptive Cognition.  Cambridge, U.K.:  University of Cambridge Press, pp. 153-182.

Soll, J. & Klayman, J. (2004). Overconfidence in interval estimates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognitions, 30, 299-314.

Klayman, J.  (2001).  Ambivalence in (not about) Naturalistic Decision Making.  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 14,  372-373. 

Klayman, J., Larrick, R. P., & Heath, C. (2000). Organizational repairs.  Across the Board, 2/2000, 26-31.

Klayman, J., Soll, J., Gonzalez-Vallejo, C., & Barlas, S. (1999). Overconfidence:  It depends on how, what, and whom you ask. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79, 216-247.

Heath, C., Larrick, R. P., & Klayman, J. (1998). Cognitive repairs: How organizational practices can compensate for individual shortcomings. Review of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1-38. [Adapted for publication in Financial Times’ Mastering Management and Barrons]

Klayman, J. (1996). Ethics as hypothesis testing and vice versa. In D. M. Messick & A. E. Tenbrunsel (Eds.), Codes of Conduct: Behavioral Research into Business Ethics, New York: Russell Sage, pp. 243-255.

Klayman, J. (1995). Varieties of confirmation bias. In J. Busemeyer, R. Hastie, & D. L. Medin (Eds.), Decision making from a cognitive perspective. New York: Academic Press (Psychology of Learning and Motivation, vol. 32), pp. 365-418.

Klayman, J. & Brown, K. (1993). Debias the environment instead of the judge: An alternative approach to improving diagnostic (and other) judgment. Cognition, 49, 97-122.

Klayman, J. & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1993). Thinking about the future: A cognitive perspective. Journal of Forecasting, 12, 161-186.

Slowiaczek, L. M., Klayman, J., Sherman, S. J., & Skov, R. B. (1992). Information selection and use in hypothesis testing: What is a good question and what is a good answer? Memory & Cognition, 20, 392-405.

Gnepp, J. & Klayman, J. (1992). Recognition of uncertainty in emotional inferences: Reasoning about emotionally equivocal situations. Developmental Psychology, 28, 145-158.

Klayman, J. & Brown, K. F. (1990). Cue discovery and learning in diagnostic inference. Working paper, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, Center for Decision Research.

Klayman, J. & Ha, Y.-W. (1989). Hypothesis testing in rule discovery: Strategy, structure and content. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 596-604.

Klayman, J. & Hogarth, R. M. (1989). Does ECHO explain explanation? A psychological perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 478-479.

Klayman, J. (1988). When half right is not half bad: Hypothesis testing under conditions of uncertainty and complexity. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Klayman, J. (1988). On the how and why (not) of learning from outcomes. In B. Brehmer & C. R. B. Joyce (Eds.), Human Judgment: The Social Judgment Theory Approach. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Klayman, J. (1988). Cue discovery in probabilistic environments: Uncertainty and experimentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 317-330.

Hogarth, R. M., & Klayman, J. (1988). Hillel J. Einhorn (1941-1987) [obituary]. American Psychologist, 43, 656.

Klayman, J., & Ha, Y.-W. (1987). Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review, 94, 211-228.

Klayman, J. (1987). An information theory analysis of the value of information in hypothesis testing (Working paper no. 171). University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, Center for Decision Research.

Klayman, J. (1985). Children's decision strategies and their adaptation to task characteristics. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 179-201.

Klayman, J. (1984). Learning from feedback in probabilistic environments. Acta Psychologica, 56, 81-92.

Klayman, J. (1983). Analysis of predecisional information search patterns. In P.C. Humphreys, O. Svenson, & A. Vari (Eds.), Analysing and Aiding Decision Processes, Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 400-414.

Klayman, J. (1982). Simulations of six decision strategies: Comparisons of search patterns, processing characteristics, and responses to task complexity (Working paper no. 100). University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, Center for Decision Research.

Gnepp, J., Klayman, J., & Trabasso, T. (1982). A hierarchy of information sources for inferring emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33, 111-123.


PAPERS PRESENTED AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS

Where managerial feedback goes wrong.  Society for Judgment and Decision Making, St. Louis, MO, November 2010 (with J. Gnepp and I. Williamson). 

New research on Constructive Managerial Feedback.  Society of Organisational Behaviour in Australia, Sydney, NSW, March, 2009 (with J. Gnepp and I. Williamson)

Differences in attributional perspective undermine managerial feedback. Association for Psychological Science, Chicago, IL, May, 2008 (with J. Gnepp).

Judgments of confidence in knowledge and abilities.  5th Sogang International Lecture Series, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea, March, 2008.

Sampling, Overconfidence, and Consumer Decisions. Association for Consumer Research, Orlando, FL, September, 2006 (with J. Soll).

People's ability to judge their ability.  Southern Ontario Behavioral Decision Research Conference, Toronto, ON, May, 2006.

Judgments of performance: The relative, the absolute, and the in-between.  Association for Consumer Research, San Antonio, TX, September, 2005 (with K. A. Burson).

The more the merrier? Effects of amount of information on overconfidence.  Association for Consumer Research, San Antonio, TX, September, 2005; Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Minneapolis, MN, November, 2004 (with C. Tsai and R. Hastie).

If I were you:  Understanding other people and other selves.  Presidential Address, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Vancouver, BC, November, 2003.

Subjective impressions of objective distributions.  Society for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS), Atlanta, GA, October, 2003 (with J. Soll).

Overconfidence in subjective confidence intervals.  Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Kansas City, MO, November, 2002 and INFORMS, San Jose, California, November, 2002 (with J. Soll).

Looking for Lake Wobegon: Why sometimes we're all below average.  Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Kansas City, MO, November, 2002 (with K. Burson and R. Larrick).

Why is there overconfidence in subjective confidence intervals?  Group Meeting on Information Sampling as a Key to Understanding Adaptive Cognition in an Uncertain Environment, Heidelberg, Germany, May, 2002 (with J. Soll).

Skilled or unskilled, but still unaware of it: How Perceptions of Difficulty Drive Miscalibration in Relative Comparisons.  Behavioral Decision Research in Management, Chicago, May, 2002 (with K. Burson).

Explaining extreme overconfidence on interval questions. Joint meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society and the Canadian Society for Brain, Behavior, and Cognitive Science, Cambridge, U.K., July, 2000 (With J. Soll).

Predicting the reactions of other people and other selves:  A grand proto-theory.  London Judgment and Decision Making Group, London, UK, November, 1999.

Overconfidence or not?  Some open questions.  London Judgment and Decision Making Group, London, UK, November, 1999.

An unbiased test of the "hard-easy" effect. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Philadelphia, November, 1997 (with J. Soll).

Organizational repairs for cognitive shortcomings. The Brunswik Society, Philadelphia, November, 1997 (with C. Heath and R. Larrick).

Positive is not the opposite of negative in hypothesis testing, but why? Conference on Positive/Negative Asymmetry in Reasoning, Krakow, Poland, August, 1997.

How do you know? The psychology of intuitive hypotheses. The John Lantham and Floyd Blair Memorial Lecture, University of Melbourne, Australia, October, 1995.

Cognitive processes in unethical behavior. Australian Psychological Society, Perth, September, 1995.

People are overconfident. Or are they? Inaugural Australian Psychological Society Conference on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Sydney, July, 1995

Ethics as hypothesis testing, and vice versa. Conference on Behavioral Research and Business Ethics, Northwestern University, August, 1994.

Cognitive models as tools for managerial problem solving (with Paul Schoemaker). TIMS/ORSA Joint National Meeting, Orlando, FL, April, 1992

Seeking and finding in hypothesis revision: Some interactions. Society for Judgment and Decision Making, San Francisco, November, 1991.

Discussant, Symposium on the Development of Children's Decision-Making Behavior. Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, April, 1991.

Strategies for discovering causal relations (with J. Beattie). Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, September, 1990.

Prediction vs. diagnosis: Does direction of inference matter in learning? Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, September, 1990.

Reasoning about uncertainty in the social realm: Inferring emotion (with J. Gnepp, E. Beaver, and B. Rybski). Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, September, 1990.

When half right is not half bad: Hypothesis testing under conditions of uncertainty and complexity. Tenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Montreal, August, 1988.

Hypotheses in learning from outcomes: What are they and what are they good for? Nags Head Conference on Judgment and Decision Making, Nags Head, NC, June, 1988

What are people doing while they are learning? Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Seattle, November, 1987.

Causes and consequences of hypothesis testing strategies. Nags Head Conference on Judgment and Decision Making, Nags Head, NC, May 1986.

Hypothesis testing in rule discovery: Strategy and structure. Tenth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Helsinki, Finland, August 1985 (with Y.-W. Ha).

Learning from experience and the development of expertise. Judgment/Decision Making Research Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1983.

The dynamics of understanding in a probabilistic environment. Ninth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Groningen, Netherlands, August, 1983; Society for Social Studies of Science, Blacksburg, VA, November 1983.

Learning in a probabilistic environment. Midwest Psychological Assoc., Chicago, May 1983.

Adaptation of decision strategies to task characteristics. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, August 1982.

Analysis of predecisional information search patterns. Eighth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Budapest, August 1981.

Inferring how others feel: A hierarchy of information sources. Society for Research in Child Development, San Francisco, April 1979 (with J. Gnepp).

Judgment and justification in the analysis of concept development: The case of animism. Society for Research in Child Development, San Francisco, April 1979.

 

OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Administrative service--Graduate School of Business

MBA Curriculum Review Committee; MBA Admissions Policy Committee; Ph.D. Admissions Committee; Student Awards Committee; Advisory Committee on New Building Design; Faculty Advisor -- Leadership Exploration and Development Program.

Administrative service--University: Council on Research

Editorial Boards

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Society for Judgment and Decision Making

President (2002-2003); Program Committee (1992-1995; Chair, 1993-1994); Executive Board (1998-2004);   Chair, executive committee, Jane Beattie Memorial Fund (1998- )

Association for Psychological Science—Fellow

American Psychological Association—Member (Division 3: Experimental);


Ad Hoc Reviewer for:

    Australian Journal of Management

    Behavioral and Brain Sciences

    Cognitive Psychology

    Cognitive Science

    Developmental Psychology

    European Association for Decision Making

    International Journal of Forecasting

    Journal of Cross-Cultural Studies

    Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human

         Perception and Performance

    Journal of Experimental Psychology:

         Learning, Memory, and Cognition

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

    Management Science

    Medical Decision Making

    Memory and Cognition

M.I.T. Press

National Science Foundation

        Decision, Risk and Management Sciences;

        Memory and Cognitive Processes;

        Human Cognition and Perception;

        Social Psychology;

        Intelligent Systems

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision

         Processes

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Psychological Bulletin

Psychological Review

Psychological Science

Psychology Press

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology

Strategic Management Journal

Thinking and Reasoning

University of Chicago Press